Hiperinflasi 10 Juta Persen Kini Tengah Melanda Venezuela

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Hiperinflasi 10 Juta Persen Kini Tengah Melanda Venezuela

Liputan46 – Bagaimana keadaannya saat terjadi inflasi 10 juta persen? Jika terjadi inflasi begitu besar, ini artinya satu barang yang awalnya seharga US$1 (Rp15 ribu) menjadi US$100 ribu (Rp1,5 miliar). Bayangkan cara menghitung dampaknya?

Usai sejumlah harga barang naik seribu persen tahun lalu, Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) menyatakan bahwa hiperinflasi pada perekonomian Venezuela diperkirakan mencapai 1,4 juta persen tahun ini dan meroket menjadi 10 juta persen tahun 2019.

Angka yang sangat besar dan tidak mungkin. Bahkan pembaca laporan perkiraan ekonomi dunia dari IMF juga harus berhati-hati menghitung angka 0 tersebut supaya tidak salah. Keadaannya sangat buruk membuat Venezuela juga tidak dimasukkan dalam angka inflasi regional maupun pasar di negara-negara berkembang.

Usai bertahun-tahun salah urus ekonomi, di sisi lain industri minyak yang penting telah terhenti, ribuan warga Venezuela meninggalkan negara tersebut setiap hari agar bisa mendapatkan makanan dan obat-obatan. Para pengungsi akhirnya membanjiri negara tetangga yakni Kolombia dan Brazil.

Sejumlah negara Amerika Latin sebelumnya berupaya untuk mendesak pemerintah Venezuela menandatangani resolusi supaya akan menerima bantuan kemanusiaan yang bertujuan meringankan krisis perpindahan penduduk.

Hingga kini Venezuela masih menolak menandatangani resolusi itu. Bukan cuma Kolombia dan Brazil, Ekuador dan Peru dijadikan tempat tujuan utama warga Venezuela sebab persyaratan masuk negara tersebut yang cukup mudah.

Perekonomian Venezuela telah kontraksi 14 persen tahun lalu dan tahun ini dapat naik mencapai 18 persen. Namun berita bagusnya, ekonomi Venezuela tidak mungkin lebih buruk lagi. Perekonomian Venezuela diperkirakan cuma akan menyusut lima persen tahun 2019.

Diperkirakan Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) per kapita akan turun lebih dari 35 persen dalam periode 2013-2017 dan diproyeksikan turun sekitar 60 persen tahun 2013-2023. IMF menyatakan bahwa hiperinflasi diperkirakan dapat memburuk secara cepat karena dipicu oleh pembiayaan moneter dari defisit fiskal yang besar serta hilangnya rasa percaya terhadap mata uang negara itu.

IMF telah memangkas proyeksi pertumbuhan dunia menjadi 3,7 persen untuk tahun ini dan tahun depan. Hal tersebut sebagian besar disebabkan adanya perlambatan pada perang dagang antara Amerika dengan China. Perang dagang tersebut akan menurunkan estimasi pertumbuhan pada sejumlah negara berkembang menjadi 4,7 persen untuk 2018 dan 2019.

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